After completion of the study, participants may have follow up visits periodically to see how they are doing. The information collected from the study is analyzed to help determine the treatment safety and efficacy. FDA medical advisers will review the research information before deciding to approve the new treatment. Even after the FDA has approved the treatment, there will be additional studies to compare the new treatment with other drugs already on the market.

In many cases, patients will either continue to take the drug after the trial has been closed. Patients who have no or poor health insurance often enroll in another clinical trial to continue getting free medical care and treatment for free of charge.